I've noticed that this area is suprisingly lacking, so I will contribute. Europe has many styles of martial arts that have survived through the ages. Although not well thought of or acknowledged in North America, it is the basis of our fighting techniques outside the Asian influences. The style I bring to light is that of the cossacks in Ukraine. Being from a land wanted by every major power in Europe and Eurasia, native Ukrainians had to develop some way to protect themselves. It started with the ancient Slavs in what is now Poland, Western Ukraine, and Belarus with highly skilled warriors from each tribe. When the Kyiv'ska Rus empire was founded hundreds of years later, the Rus (Swedish vikings who founded the empire) kings hired errand knights and other special soldiers to protect the borderlands. After the fall of Kyiv'ska Rus by the Mongols, the famous cossack hosts began to appear. As early as the mid sixteenth century, the Zaporozhian cossack host founded its fortress on the Dnieper river. Here, men came from all over the land seeking refuge from tyrants. In order to deserve their status as free men, they had to fight, and possibly die, for their comrades and their new soil. At Zorozhye, the cossacks trained every day the art of war. When war came, they marched off under the infallible command of their chief (the Hetman, or Kosh Ataman). At times of peace, the Hetman and the rada (council) had little to no power over the cossacks. Many of these men were already master horsemen before they arrived. Life on the steppe, the forests, and the mountains of Ukraine was unforgiving. They were hard men who brought many skills to the table. On top of that, they practiced sabre drills and horsemanship daily. Later on, the cossacks adopted new weapons into their arsenal. Cannons and arquebusi eventually replaced bows and arrows as the chief missile weapons. A cossack man would raise his son to be a warrior from the time he was a baby. He learned to ride, shoot, and fight well before he was fifteen. Also, a cossack had to know how to survive with no provisions on the steppe. Today, the cossacks have long since broken apart and new hosts were formed all over Eastern Europe. We know so much about their original fighting style from simply looking at the influences. Also, the various cossack dances showcase ways in which they fought. Walking around squatted allows for leg muscles to build, thus assisting in riding the horse. The high kicks were literally for kicking enemies in the head. The various ways the sabre and lance are used in the dances say a lot as well. There is so much to the European fighting tradition, yet, sadly, almost no one cares. I myself am attempting to recreate this art. I practice every day how to wield a lance, how to fight with my fists, how to properly utilize a sabre, and how to ride a horse effectively.