In an interview with GM Largusa that appeared in the July 2003 issue of "Filipino Martial Arts", Mr. Largusa himself claimed: "Kali is the ancient form of the martial arts of Indonesia and the Philippines." When asked how much influence the Spanish had on the development of FMA, Largusa replied: "Culturally, the Spanish had a lot of influence. As far as martial arts, and kali in particular, not that much. Please note I'm talking about kali. In other methods, such as arnis and escrima, they did have more influence. Kali was already developed when they arrived, and if you look at the different methods of fighting and training you'll see that the Spaniards were mainly using what we call the small circle. Kali is based on the simultaneous use of the small and big circle. The Spaniards had big problems with the kali men. The kali fighters used to move their weapons into the big circle, which completely surprised the opponent-- since the Spanish had never seen an attack or defense from there--and placed them in a vulnerable position. This gave the kali fighter more than enough time to the small circle and finish the opponent." Questions: 1. Do you practice the small and big circles? What exactly are these circles? 2. Do others who espouse Kali employ these circles or is it only specific to Mr. Villabrille? 3. Mr. Villabrille credits both his uncle from Bantayan, Cebu (they were relatives with the Ilustrisimos) and a blind Pulahan (root word: red, a cult-like, millenarian movement spanning the Visayas) woman in Samar. Where is Mr. Largusa from in the Philippines? 4. Did the word Kali as used by the Villabrille-Largusa group originate from the Pulahans or from Mr. Largusa? 5. How much similarities are there in Villabrille's and Ilustrisimo's arts, ie. movements and in names?