Greetings to everyone! I just wanted to put up a thread regarding something that's been on my mind as of late, namely, the etymology and spelling of FMA terms. I realize that the Filipino martial arts are now being practiced world-wide by people of various cultures and languages; naturally, some distortion in the pronunciation and spelling of names of the techniques was to be expected. As a Filipino, I'm really excited about the increasing exposure of FMA, but I would also like to see that the relevant language is preserved. (After all, if Karate and Kendo practitioners know the proper use of their respective arts' terms, there's no reason we eskrimadors and arnisadors can't do likewise.) And I'm sure that most would agree that knowing the origin of the technique names adds a new dimension to the appreciation of the art. I've listed the etymology and correct spelling of some commonly-used FMA terms below. For those who already know what I'm talking about, please bear with me. For those who may know more on this topic, please feel free to add your comments. (Note: Filipinos borrowed several words from Spanish, due to the long period of colonization. Some terms were preserved in their original form, while many underwent a Filipino re-spelling.) banda y banda - borrowed from the Spanish; literally, "side and side" dulo-dulo - literally, "end-end"; very short, single-hand weapon pointed at both ends; used to complement hand strikes; commonly made from wood or animal horn; also referred to as dos puntas ("two points") panuntukan - ultimately from the term suntok, which denotes a strike with the fist. Suntukan means "fistfight"; panuntukan refers to techniques for fist-fighting. payong - literally, umbrella redonda/redondo - from the Spanish, meaning "round" sagasa - to trample/run over heavily sikaran - from the word sikad, meaning "kick"; sikaran refers to the act of kicking. sinawali - from the term sawali, which refers to the interwoven bamboo splits used for walling material; the arm movements during the technique's execution are likened to this. sombrada - from the Spanish term sombra, meaning "shade" or "shadow" I'm out of time right now, but I hope to add more later on. As I stated above, please feel free to add your own information or comment to this post. Thanks!